Monthly Archives: March 2011

Politeia IX

Plato describes how man has two types of needs: healthy, benevolent, philosophical, well-disciplined needs based on moral justness and secondly bestial, unrestrained, hedonistic lusts which appear during sleep and are not based on morality. The individual human being has the same character as society as a whole, therefore we can recognize a tyrannic or a democratic character both in an entire society and in an individual. Plato says tyranny can only develop from democracy, because democracy has no formal ban on immoral behavior. Immoral behavior, such as the spendthrift party lifestyle, leads to financial and other ruin and this makes an individual susceptible to tyrannic actions like theft and violence on others. This is because such individual has no decent livelihood left. A tyrannic individual, however, like a tyrannic society, knows no real freedom within and suppresses any inclination towards philosophy or creativity, because a natural tyrant is slave of strong self destructive lusts that, also, make him naturally mistrusting of any other influence or input of others. Typical of a tyrannic society is that the head of state isn’t the only tyrant; local powerful persons are too and even many individuals are their own worst tyrant. There are three types of people: philosophical, ambitious and greedy people. This comes from the basic three human needs, namely the zest for learning, ambition and a third quality that has so many sides that we can’t name it, perhaps we should call it desire. Those who wish to learn, will do so to find truth. Ambitious people, however, will learn to acquire fame and influence over others. This means there are three kinds of happiness, too, happiness meaning a life where joy exceeds pain and leading to lifestyles we may qualify as either noble or vulgar, or good or bad. An important question here is: who has right, the philosophical, ambition or greedy person? In order to judge that, we need experience, intellect and reason. Every person acquires happiness from income and power. Only the philosophical person, however, truly knows to appreciate them, as he, she is the only one to appreciate truth. Only a philosopher knows the true merits of justified good reputation and wealth, because only a philosopher loves reason enough to hunt for truth. Happiness through wisdom is best. Second best is the happiness of the combatant person who cares for honor. Third comes the happiness of greedy people. Happiness is not peace, meaning absence of pain or bliss. Peace is a neutral state. A greedy or ambitious person isn’t likely to experience real happiness, because fulfillment of earthy and hedonistic needs gives only temporary bliss and is in their case usually troubled by envy and other negative emotion. Lasting happiness lies in truth and wisdom only and can only found by those willing to use reason. A tyraniccal person, always on the run from justice and reason, even exceeds the boundaries of ambitious or greedy happiness; his idea of happiness doesn’t get any further than fulfillment of lowly material hedonistic pleasures. Plato has tried to put degrees of happiness into numbers. A tyrant is three steps away from a democrat, a democrat three steps from an oligarch and an oligarch three steps away from a royal person. This brings a royal person 3^2 =  9 steps closer towards happiness than a tyrannical person, however, to really calculate the difference we must use another logarithm:

A royal person is 9^3 =  729 times happier than a tyrannical person!

The proof of correctness lies in Plato’s eyes in the fact that the year consists of 364 1/2 nights and 364 1/1 days: 729 periods and tyrannical lusts appear in the night when we dream. This shows how much a good and just person excells in happiness over an evil and unjust person; in qualities of the mind like kindness or beauty he will excell infinitely more! To understand how the struggle between goodness, justice, honesty and evil, beastly lusts works we must see how a monster with many beastly heads, a lion and a man meet and merge, then take the shape of a man. In good people the human part of the mind knows how to win over the lion and the monster, bad people suffer and starve under the ferocious fighting of the monster and the lion. A royal person can only be a philosopher; other people have to satisfy themselves with trade, manual labor, even with crime to satisfy their needs and more or less successfully fight their beasts inside.

Sources:
Works by Plato, The Internet Archive http://classics.mit.edu/Browse/browse-Plato.html
Wikipedia.org
Philebus http://classics.mit.edu/Plato/philebus.html
Plato’s Politeia http://www.arsfloreat.nl

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Politeia VIII

Plato continues about the ideal type of state: the aristocracy as discussed above guided by the most just, best educated people namely sincere philosophers and four other types of state: the state Sparta, the oligarchy, democracy and tyranny. From aristocracy a sixth type of state may rise and this must be seen as a deterioration: the timocracy, a society based on ambition. An aristocracy may dwindle down into a timocracy when men and women procreate at the wrong moment*, begetting weaker offspring and leading to the different classes of people starting to mingle. Society knows respectively a golden, silver, cupper and iron type of man. Mingling leads to disappearance of the most just and educated people: golden and silver people and thus to disharmony, struggle, hostility and finally a civil war. The leaders of a timocracy are practical, more interested in physical activity and ambitious for short term goals that match this attitude. They neglect the highest intellectual and moral standards. A timocracy in turmoil may deteriorate into an oligarchy: a society focused on possession, ruled by an avaricious type of leader, avaricious to both others and themselves. In a society focused on possession a gap grows between rich and poor, leading to a struggle. If the poor win, the wealthy will be expelled or killed and from then on all people may participate in society and governance on an equal footing. This is the birth of democracy: society based on freedom. Slaves, even animals enjoy the same freedom as their masters. People may say what they want, no restrictions or sanctions really exist, because there is no single moral standard. The mood goes with the flow of a then prevalent influence. If the prevalent influence is somehow harmful or demoralizing, opportunists grab their chance to win over those with whom power truly resides in a democracy: the large majority of poor people. This opportunist leads the people into a rebellion against remaining (and new) oligarchs and proclaims himself as a protector of the people. Such a position can only be maintained with violence: war fare and extermination of critics. Critics will disapprove of the lack of freedom under patronage of the leader. The tyrannic leader has to surround himself with a large staff of protectors and  guards. Thus democracy ends in a tyranny. Plato compares the tyrant with a son killing his father: a popular leader brought forth by an enslaved people finally enslaves his people again. Living under tyranny is being enslaved by  slaves.

*The wrong moment: Plato gave an arithmetic explanation of ‘the wrong’ moment to give birth: the moral and intellectual potential of each newly born is determined by logarithmic succession of numbers: the Platonic nuptial number. All of it seems mystical; many explanations have been given. Most likely the nuptial number corresponds with the number 12,960,000, an important number in Babylonian numerology that equals 60^4 =12,960,000, but it may also correspond with Plato’s number of citizens for the ideal state: 1 x 2 x 3 x 4 x 5 x 6 x 7 = 5,040. The ideal period to give birth, however, consists of a lapse of 3, 4 and 5 months in a mathematical combination:

3^3 + 4^3 + 5^3 = 6^3 = 216. However, 3 + 4 + 5 = 12, which may be 12 months. The numbers 3, 4, and 5 can also be used as lengths of the lines in a triple. When we go further with new combinations, we arrive again at 12,960,000:

5 x 12 = 60

60 x 60 = 3,600

3,600 x 60 = 216,000

216,000 x 60 =12,960,000.

36 x 36 = 1296 and 100 x 100 = 10,000 and 1,296 x 10,000 = 12,960,000

A perfect square may have sides of each 3,600 and thus a surface of 12,960,000 in a relation of 1 : 1. The relation equals the harmony of unisound in music.

Then we add Pythagoras’ hypothesis on another perfect square, with sides of each 5 and corners named A, B, C and D and cut it in two at corners B and D:

AB^2 + AD^2 = BD^2

25 + 25 = 50.

The real length of BD, however, is 7. Plato used this problem to arrive at his nuptial number in another way:

BD^2 – 1 = √50^2 – 2 = 48.

(4800 x 100) x (2700 x 100) = 1,2960,000

‘The relation 4,800 : 3,600 is used in Greek music structure, now used in all music in the West: minor seventh’, a commentator on Plato said. (Stichting Ars Floreat Without entering a full disclosure of tone scales in western music: it consists of seven basic tones, called root tones, from A to G. Sometimes a tone scale starts at C, sometimes G, sometimes F, A, it depends on the intended mood of the music and the instrument. On a C scale we count from C to exactly the same, higher tone above it: C. In total eight notes. Between the root tones half tones exist. Major tone scales maintain a bigger distance between tones; chords or harmonies then have a more contrasting, higher, brighter sound; minor tone scales sound deeper, darker, more melancholic, sometimes dissonant,    because of smaller distance between tones, more half distances. Minor scales differ between second and third note only a half tone and major scales between third and fourth and between seventh and eighth note only a half note, generally speaking.

This extra elaboration on music and math has to do with Plato’s fascination for any correspondence between them; his use of numbers in geometry somehow corresponds with tone scales and he must have seen beauty in it and a philosophical lesson. Though many commentators have speculated about it.

Sources:
Works by Plato, The Internet Archive http://classics.mit.edu/Browse/browse-Plato.html
Wikipedia.org
Philebus http://classics.mit.edu/Plato/philebus.html
Plato’s Politeia http://www.arsfloreat.nl
http://mathsforeurope.digibel.be/story.htm
Suite101.com http://www.suite101.com/content/minor-seventh-chords-a113729
‘Wiskunde op het net’ http://wiskunde.ebrodesign.com/index.php?id=20&gr=1
Chord Mine http://www.chordmine.com/guitar-chords/chord/chord_3.aspx

 

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The Cave Parable

Politeia VII: Plato continues now about God. God cannot be known through discussion, observation or the mind. Education cannot build a relationship between God and the believer, this has to come from divine revelation and human reasoning and interpretation. Goodness itself is God’s substance. Plato mentions one God as creator, goodness itself, governor of creation. If a community is cut off a divinity, it can never reach harmony as coming from true happiness. Therefor Plato likes to see a representative of the divinity and spokesman of divine will as leader of the community. The Egyptians were seen as role models for a happy society. The cave parable as explanatory example has become famous; it deals with observation, knowledge and human limitation. Light and water are important divine forces of knowledge, intelligence, purification and creation. The Sun is the highest source of light and goodness; God is the Sun. What about the cave? The cave is a subterranean prison where people with their necks and legs in tight chains; all they can is look forward. An opening the size of the cave itself supplies them with air and behind their backs, hight above them, burns a fire. There’s a road between the fire and the prisoners, shielded from them by a wall. Many people walk on this road, carrying objects like rocks, wooden statues of men and animals, lifted above the wall. Some talk, others don’t. The only thing each prisoner can see, is his own, his fellow prisoners’ and the shadows belonging to the objects carried around him on the road behind him. The prisoners take the shadows for the entire truth, maybe their own conversations and those of the pedestrians outside, for reality. Truth is that the prisoners live in a very small reality. If one of them is released and allowed to go outside, he has to get used to the abundant light, before he can see the landscape, other people and last but not least the Sun itself. He will understand that the Sun is source of all light, including the little bit in the cave. Now his reality has expanded, he never wants to go back to the small cave world, which stands for ignorance. The world that many people live in. Should he go back, he eagerly wants to enlighten the prisoners of the big world outside. They, however, see him stumble in clumsily, having to readjust to the darkness, and don’t believe that he is in such better situation. They will refuse to follow him outside. This is the position of those who have seen the bigger truth of divine observation and light having to return to human sorrows and behave clumsily, the popular image of philosophers and religious figures that cause others to mock them. Eyes can be blinded both ways: coming from darkness and coming from the light, it causes the observer to feel fortunate over the experience and living conditions before and pity the others. It shows that knowledge can’t be planted into a person. Man possesses all capabilities on every field, but has to focus with the entire body towards the light in order to see the reality of everything and be able to bear it’s shine. It’s about looking into the right direction, to about implanting the capability to see. What we call good qualities resemble bodily functions; a quality not yet present can be developed by repetition and training. Reason rather has a divine origin, it never leaves us and depends on what we focus on and how, if the intention is good or malicious. The leaders of a perfect society must have seen both the big outside world and been back in the cave and look with its inhabitants to the shadows on the wall, knowing where the shadows originate from. Observation alone isn’t always enough to inform our senses, because some observations miss context: presence of contrasts, different size, or distance between different observations. An objective, eternal, universal standard is needed for comparison of observations and then we end up needing accounting. How soft is soft? How big is big, how red is red? Our vision confuses these concepts. Both the military and philosophy need reason by means of arithmetics and algebra to end up at truth. Those aspiring to fulfill the highest posts in society ought to master arithmetics, not for making a profit, but if they successfully want to dedicate themselves to truth and reality. Socrates passionately supports the thought that numbers had to be separated from physical objects and must be seen as abstraction; in his view division into fractions really is multiplication. Only by reason, not by observation arithmetics can be properly understood. Physical objects and shapes, in other words down to earth practicality, are no useful first study realms for leaders of society; practically can only be understood if we understand the truth behind it all. Arithmetics should be the first compulsory study, then two-dimensional geometry, then three-dimensional geometry and fourth astronomy, if we want to know eternal truth. First simply numbers, then length, then, being more complicated and unknown, depth in single objects, and fourth depth in and between moving objects. Musicology is seen as astronomy’s opposite and should be studied not for its emotion but for its mathematical tone harmony and contrast. Both astronomy and musicology should be studied for their common characteristics and origin. If ever we want to practice reason, we must first have complete view over all that is, like the released cave prisoners, before we can properly judge what we see. To understand Goodness itself, we must have seen all of truth: the borders of everything we can reach, namely the Sun, the celestial bodies. Researching all that grows or was made by man isn’t the method; the clean and objective methods of arithmetics, geometry, astronomy and musicology are the right way to gain real knowledge. Reason, not empirical research. Reason must be part of higher education that must start at young age. The way to raise philosopher able to lead the community is higher education starting at very young age with sports, then the science mentioned and finally, no means before thirty years of age, an effort at debate can be made. Only those children with high intellect, strong memory, endurance and honesty are suited for this life, women included.

Sources:
Works by Plato, The Internet Archive http://classics.mit.edu/Browse/browse-Plato.html
Wikipedia.org
Philebus http://classics.mit.edu/Plato/philebus.html
Plato’s Politeia

 

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Plato on knowledge and morality

Morality to Plato meant in the first place eternal and metaphysical values as infinite and finite, good and evil, as opposed to and more important than temporary practical everyday knowledge on craftsmanship, arts, medicine, trade and other tangible activities of people. There was a ranking between eternal philosophy and everyday practical skills. Infinite versus finite, ignorant versus educated, (the higher) love for the mind versus (the more vulgar) love for the body, just-unjust, black-white, sheep-wolf, but everything is also composed of complementing pairs. Fishing consists of net fishing or angling and hunting of hunt for land- or water animals. From Protagoras: ‘If, therefore, you have understanding of what is good and evil, you may safely buy knowledge of Protagoras or of any one; but if not, then, O my friend, pause, and do not hazard your dearest interests at a game of chance. For there is far greater peril in buying knowledge than in buying meat and drink: the one you purchase of the wholesale or retail dealer, and carry them away in other vessels, and before you receive them into the body as food, you may deposit them at home and call in any experienced friend who knows what is good to be eaten or drunken, and what not, and how much, and when; and then the danger of purchasing them is not so great. But you cannot buy the wares of knowledge and carry them away in another vessel; when you have paid for them you must receive them into the soul and go your way, either greatly harmed or greatly benefited; and therefore we should deliberate and take counsel with our elders; for we are still young-too young to determine such a matter.’ Sophistry was a hazardous trade in Plato’s days, it had no good name and involved political risk. Protagoras was secretive about his trade. We may wonder how different that is today, with it’s many secretive gatherings of sophists, freemasons and others.

Perhaps Plato’s most important work is Politeia, a work on governance and politics and is a record of Socrates’ discussions on the subject. What should a perfectly administered society look like? It is a society striving towards universal goodness the way God the Creator, in Socrates’, Plato’s words the ultimate Goodness, wants it. Goodness can only be achieved through knowledge of the principles behind everything that grows and exists. Principles that can be found through reason and uncompromising honesty rather than experience. Only philosophers who really deserve that name and have received an intensive education are capable to lead a society that is based on true goodness. Craftsmen, the military, artists, and other workers usually have skills needed in everyday life and miss the overview. They can’t look beyond practicality and therefor miss what’s needed to rule society towards justice and goodness.

In Politeia book I Socrates says that justice is giving each person what you owe them. We owe it our body to feed it properly, doctors owe it people to cure their bodies or mind. Helping others properly is justice. Just leadership can only flourish on a voluntary basis; only then the most virtuous people will step forward for it.

From Politeia book II & III: ‘People are not just from their own free will, but only if they have no other option. Justice is, after all, not seen as something good by itself, for if a person thinks to have the opportunity to deal unjustly, he will not leave it. Every person is inclined to think that false play is much more advantageous to himself than fair play. Proof: if a man possesses a ring that can make him invincible, he will gladly use it occasionally, for intstance if he wants intercourse with the neighbors’ wives, kill who he wants to, steal from the market what he likes or break out of prison. He could live among people like a god. Plato then narrates of a man who found two dissapearance-rings: a just and an unjust ring. The owner of the just ring would by no means show more discipline than the owner of the unjust copy and both would act the same way.’ The reason for this is that justice lies in the intention behind actions, according to Plato, and not behavior. Unjust people tend to embellish their behavior with socially approved actions and just people leave this because of their need for honesty. Therefor both the just and the unjust man usually refrain from stealing from the market stall.

Goodness is always benevolent and leads to well-being. God is goodness itself and causes good things that befall man. Evil lies not in Him, but in other things. Poets like Homer make foolish mistakes when they say that the gods divide good and evil among people’. We don’t know what God looks like and how He may change appearance if at all. God is not the cause of all things, only of good things and goodness. He is simpel, doesn’t lie or bewitch people and is no cause of disaster. Evil doesn’t come from God, but elsewhere. Poets and other artists should legally be forced to make truthful works that stimulate virtue and goodness.The relation between this one Deity and the traditional polytheistic pantheon is a difficult and unknown one, which man will never find out. A spoken lie (or truth) is only an expression of a real lie (or truth) and therefor not the real lie (or truth) itself, according Plato. Plato strongly believes that education and the example from others shape young people into good or evil character and that human nature has two sides, a strong fiery side where passion and physical wants reside and a curious intellectual side where the mind reigns. On the other hand, each man has a character of his own and the ranking of society should be based on the moral height of personalities. Those with leadership qualities form the golden class that should run the country, those fit for guardianship make the silver class, the military, and those who are good at gathering property and food are the copper and iron classes, respectively business- and craftsmen and farmers. The military must stay deprived of property and land, as that would turn them into farmers and business men. Both the arts, especially music, and athletics are important elements of education; young people learn to balance their fierce physical traits with their gentle spirit and builds them into ambitious yet orderly and mild people. Self restraint, honesty and positive role models are important; authors and poets in the past have unjustly portrayed the gods with human misbehavior and passions. Most musical instruments, however, may divulge people from this path of self restraint, intellect and strength. A weak society, says Plato, shows an over-abundant presence of medical and judicial professionals. However, judges and doctors are vital to society and their upbringing needs extra care. A future judge must dwell among decent high standard people and a doctor must have seen the face of illness. Having been ill himself is a pre, considering that cure comes from the mind and not from the body or purely physical treatments, according to Plato. Overcoming of suffering builds strength and especially a doctor needs it. A weak society, however, has no need for weak sickly or morally deprived people and such people needn’t be spared.

Politieia IV: The four most important virtues according to Socrates are wisdom, courage, moderation and above all justice. Socrates had a strong belief in community-oriented society where each class played its role, the three main classes being salesmen, craftsmen and peasants, then the military and, last but not least, the philosophers as society’s leaders. The individual plays his or her harmonious role in a society that has moderate difference between extremes like very rich and very poor. A society also characterized by a strong moderation in legislation, rules and regulation, as an overflow of those leads to a neglect of core tasks in society. Sanctioning of corruption and injustice is also possible without a series of laws, as long as wisdom, sincereness and evidence exist. Elaborate presence of legislation and medical workers, however, also indicate a flight behind rules and problem solving after a problem has arisen, whereas society’s focus should lay on avoiding problems and disease by morality and healthy living. A healthy society should therefore possess only a small legislation and few doctors. Plato uses the octave of eight law, medium and high sounds as a metaphor for the balance a good society should have between ‘the high youthful voice of justice’ and ‘the law and mature voice of moderation’. Eight also forms the basis of each three-dimensional space, namely two times four and two times two and again two times. Orpheus worshipped divine justice by its eight forces: fire, water, earth, heaven, moon, sun, day and night, resembling an ancient Egyptian obelisk erected in honor of justice and displaying eight deities: Evander, Saturn, Ra, Osiris, Spirit, Heaven and Night-and-Day. In early Antiquity the eigth sphere was assumed to represent divine justice.

Politeia V: Men and women receive diffferent education, men are expected to be guardians of mankind, yet we see that men and women can be equally suited for any profession or task, though men usually are stronger. Yet, both genders are seperated in education. Socrates suggested that men and women should ‘share’ the same education, jobs and also together raise their children equally therefore, though this may entail problems. After all, in practice a female watchdog has to protect her masters, like a male. This entails that men and women should not confine themselves to one and the same partner. If public life can be shared, then private life will inevitably be shared too, in a communal housing setting, an opinion considered unusual in mainstream Greece. However, the best men and women should get together for procreation and leaders should have a big say in the selection. Living with close relatives in the straight line must be prohibited and efforts to procreate outside the acceptable age ranges too. A man must then consider all children born between seven to ten months after intercourse as his. Joy and pain must be shared in the community likewise, because it fortifies ties. Greeks shouldn’t enslave each other, not even in periods of civil war. It must be prescribed not to destroy land or homes of other Greeks. Women must be part of the armed forces, which is even more justified. The fact that it may not be possible to realize this perfect society, doesn’t make this model any less perfect or desirable. Further Socrates explains the difference between appreciation of beauty itself in its core and of pretty things and objects. Beauty itself is seen as dialectic opposite of beautiful stuff. Knowledge of truth is in this same fashion opposite of opinion. We can consider non-being equal to ignorance and being with knowledge when we applied to the validity of an opinion: it’s not possible to hold an opinion on nothing. We may place opinions somewhere in the middle of knowledge and ignorance. Is anything in the middle between being and non-being? There may be qualities between being and non-being: someone who denies the existence of the one unchangeable concept ‘beauty’ may very well appreciate beautiful objects and just actions can appear unjust. Some people can see beautiful things, have many opinions, yet not grasp the essence of beauty or truth. Others do see the essence of beauty and may become artists, or gain true knowledge and thus wisdom.

Politeia VI: Goodness ranks higher than truth, wisdom, morality and pleasure; pleasure stands at the lowest rank of these principles. Legislation is not as important as the leader’s character, but good governance is extremely rare, if not non-existent.  It consists of both philosophical qualities as wisdom and truthfulness and practical qualities as initiative and care for a community’s welfare. Necessary qualities for a philosopher are truthfulness and good memory, qualities supported by sense for beauty, inner balance and kindness. Philosophers however miss leadership qualities and social skills needed to govern a society. A kaptain doesn’t ask his men at the middle of sea if he may lead them and a teacher doesn’t study his pupils in order to adjust to them. The pupils are like a monster that has to be taught good from bad, high from low, just from unjust and therefor a teacher can’t obey them by teaching them the things they like in spite of their absolute qualities. Not many people have the strength and determination to teach absolute truth and beauty instead of small truths and pretty things in favor of the masses. The sophist claim that absolute truth doesn’t exist or doesn’t matter has been harmful and has also led to opportunism. The few people who combine the truthloving nature, good breeding and leadership qualities, and gain a high position, will soon be corrupted by the flattering and lack of honesty by the mainstream of society. Their own vanity and opportunism will develop, they will be dissapointed with the lack of result gained by true philosophy. Those who lack the talent for true philosophy then step into their place and ruin it. And people rush into philosophy, as it has kept its high appreciation, even when there’s a lack of persisting talented philosophers. There’s no other possibility than that philosophy and perfection in a society derive from God, everything else, being less perfect, is human. Another problem is that philosophy is now taught at too late an age, the age when young men start a carreer and a family and have no time anymore to ponder and discuss absolute truth. Young children should receive philosophy lessons in a fashion suited for their age. Devine grace   only makes philosophers love absolute truth AND makes them suitable leaders for mankind, fulfilling public service. Mankind should be guided by philosophers, if it ever wants to achieve some truth. Knowledge of truth is vital, yet even more vital is goodness. Yet nothing is more difficult to define than goodness. Knowledge and truth are apparitions of goodness, yet they aren’t goodness itself. Socrates mentions geonometrics, algebra, arithmetrics and such disciplines as examples of knowledge we already possess. They are the axioms, hypotheses from which we start to continue the search for what’s behind: ultimate absolute truth and then goodness. Fysical objects are a reflexion of knowledgeable axioms. Because of its obvious clarity, we owe the visible world our full respect. The visible world holds another aspect when supposed hypotheses that aren’t axioms but reasonings. Suppositions of which we can’t visibly, empirically, but through reason prove truth. Visual observation isn’t the method, understanding and thinking lead to knowledge of essentials. Knowledge has four levels: the highest is absolute truth, then comes understanding, then faith and imagination comes last. The mind gains clarity the more it reaches truth. (to be continued)

Sources:
Works by Plato, The Internet Archive http://classics.mit.edu/Browse/browse-Plato.html
Wikipedia.org
Philebus http://classics.mit.edu/Plato/philebus.html
Plato’s Politeia

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